論文題目：Perspective and Reality of Integrated Conservation and Development Project. Experience from Andasibe Mantadia National Park, Madagascar
著者：ズ・ラライナ・ラザフィアリソン （ZO Lalaina, Razafiarison）
National and international agencies seek to integrate the development of local populations with the conservation of forest ecosystems and species. They agree that the best way to safeguard natural systems is to give management control to the local people and allow them to use the natural resources. Integrated Conservation and Development Project (ICDP) is one of the nature conservation approaches based on local resource management. Reconciling conflicts between parks and people living around them is one of the targets of the project. The promoters of ICDP believe that if the local natural resources are used in a sustainable way and bring tangible benefits to local inhabitants, the latter then feel concerned. ICDP projects are composed of three distinct types of operations: (1) Protected area management that include activities such as the biodiversity inventories and monitoring, patrols of park borders, infrastructure maintenance, applied biological research, conservation education and ecotourism development; (2) Maintenance of buffer zones, where a sustainable use of natural resources is permitted. The activities allowed in the buffer zones include hunting and fishing using traditional methods, collecting fallen timber, harvesting fruit, seasonal grazing of domestic stock, and cutting bamboo and grasses; and (3) Social and economic developments that include activities towards these goals consist of rural development projects that rely on compensation and substitution strategies. Moreover, ICDP strongly emphasizes local people participation in the designing and implementation of projects. However, this study demonstrates that ICDP projects do not bring good results, either for the preservation of the parks' natural resources or for the local inhabitants' income. Park managers are not able to provide local farmers with technical and financial support. They failed to compensate the farmers' loss of lands and natural resources. The distribution of benefits from project implementation such as the money raised from park entrance fees is unequal. The role of local inhabitants in park management and development projects is not defined precisely enough, and the implementation method is not clear. The conflicts between park managers and local inhabitants are far from being resolved if the way parks are managed as well as park legislations are not improved, and if the concept of ICDP itself is not revised. Efforts should be oriented towards the building of trust, the improvement of communication between park managers and locals, the minimization of conflicts of interests among the locals, and the reduction of risks and uncertainty of park conservation. The park managers should give more power to local inhabitants (power sharing approach) and shift from a national park ideal to a non-restrictive approach. All stakeholders should be invited to negotiate an amendment to the current regulations for resource use and innovation in park management (negotiation approach).
1- Background of the Study
Malagasy government had implemented a fifteen-year National Environmental Plan (NEAP) in 1991 for the protection of its natural environment. During the phase 1 or EP1 of the NEAP (1991-1997), most protected areas were managed under Integrated Conservation and Development Project programs or ICDPs. In the ICDP concept, the first priority is placed on conservation of biodiversity, and satisfying local people of social and economic needs are the means to achieve the goal. ICDPs are viewed by their promoters as popular because they offer the attractive prospect to attain the most sought goals on the sustainable development agenda: more effective conservation, increase local participation in conservation and development, and economic development for the rural poor. The EP1 was ended in 1997 but the international and national environmentalists that worked on Madagascar natural environment conservation are still struggling for the survival of protected areas (PAs) and their wildlife. While some indicators of success such as the increase of number and extent of PA , increase of rural development projects, local participation to local projects, and benefits from ecotourism are recorded in the ICDP documents and government publications, in the field the clearance of primary forest under the PA protection continues and even aggravates than before. For examples, the primary forest within the protected area of Andasibe Mantadia National Park (AMNP), eastern of Madagascar has decreased from 9, 198 ha (1957) to 8, 373 ha (1991) and 7, 969 ha in 1994 (Andry, 1995) . Sussman and al. (1994) reported that the early optimism accompanying the development of ICDPs in Madagascar and other parts of the world has been replaced by more somber and critical assessments. The worst and deceptive result from the ICDP experiences is the fact that the local inhabitants with whom the PA managers seek allies for the park protection are becoming their enemy except the few people who benefit from the projects. Local peasants are expelled outside the border of the PA to practice their agriculture. However, the compensation or the alternatives to the unsustainable activities are not arrived to whom are deprived of land and of other means to support life. The rare activities of local peasants being implemented and led by conservation project are failed after short period. The poverty is everywhere in rural areas surrounding the PAs. The traditional structure of the society is destroyed because the people do not know how to deal with their life and to whom they could appeal. Those who violated the laws regulated the PAs are put in jail. Full of anger, the peasants do not trust the park mangers and their projects, and they suspect the NGOs that work with them. The Malagasy government and its financial donors have already leaded an assessment on the value and effectiveness of the ICDP in the management of PA by means of systematic review of their efforts to achieve their conservation objectives. Utilizing their documents and filed work visits, the objectives of this study are to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of ICDP approach for PA management of AMNP. From this investigation can be drawn successful efforts and useful lessons that may improve the park management. The final results are of significant use in reforming the ongoing PA management approach (ICDP) in Madagascar. Because the management of a PA concerns many sectors, such as policy, economy, sociology, culture, laws and so on, this study discusses different aspect of the PA management. The topics chosen in this study only embrace the few problems among others when managing PA. The focus points of this thesis are (1) the local land tenure and farming system identified as the root of conflict between the PA managers and local peasants; (2) the economic development of local communities through the development of ecotourism and the creation of alternative revenue source than the uses of natural resources; and (3) the local community participation on the protection of natural environment and the rural economic development projects.
The creation and expansion of PA are the way that Malagasy government and its financial donors protect the island's environment. The PA management is complex. There is not a universal approach that could successfully protect the wildlife in any ecosystems of the world. Accepted these assumptions, discussions and critics are needed to improve the ICDP performance in the case study. This study is a contribution to the debate that aims to improve ICDP, mainly through the study of Andasibe Mantadia National Park management.
Methods for monitoring the effectiveness of PAs are still relatively undeveloped (FAO, 2001) . In this study, the effectiveness of PA management will be assesses in terms of the protection of park biological diversity, institutional capacity, and social and economic impacts. The study was based on primary data collected during the field works in AMNP region, supplemented by extensive review of ICDP documents (mainly plans, progress reports and evaluations of divers PA). In addition of the case study, senior staffs of government agencies, park managers and NGOs were interviewed privately to obtain the national environmental policy perspective and their experiences on PA management. Documents from diverse government department and NGOs were collected.
Eleven villages were visited during the field works. The villages visited were selected in the consultation with the staff of the park. The sites were chosen according their proximity to the park, the significance of the infractions done by the villagers and the importance of the economic activities implemented. Fifty-eight persons were interviewed including: thirty-two local farmers, two public servants, six local elected representatives, three chiefs of department in the park administration, three local security agents, two park field agents or patrols, one traditional village chief, three tourist guides, three heads of local associations, and three tourists. Discussions were also held privately or by small groups. All the discussions took place in informal settings in the aim to crate a relaxed conservation. Community access problem precluded the visit of certain areas of the region and interviewing of some farmers. However, it seems that the sample is typical of the farmers in the park peripheral zone as whole, because of the environmental and cultural similarities within the region.
3- Originality of the study
Methods for monitoring the effectiveness of PA management are still relatively undeveloped and confined mainly to assess effectiveness of the management in terms of biological diversity conservation. The present thesis incorporates integrated assessment of PA under "Sharing Park Entrance Fee" policy implemented by Malagasy government and focuses on to investigate the policies and programs undertaken by PA managers and its social consequences. FAO emphasizes the importance to develop such assessment from border perspective including institutional, social, economic, and legal factors.
The target of the research set to small communities located in the remote region of Andasibe Mantadia National Park where local peasants are scattered and carrying out traditional farming. Although, in a true sense of ICDP concept, they are to be the beneficiaries of the projects, few studies dealing with ICDPs took their existence into consideration. As result, most of local peasants are suspicious against foreigners (NGO members and researchers) and public authorities including park staff because of their unpleasant memories of colonization and communist eras. The author succeeded to hear their frank and honest opinions to the implemented ICDPs, taking full advantages to be native student. Detailed analysis of the impacts on the peasants is indispensable to design improved programs to ameliorate the social consequences unfavorable to the local peasants.
4- Organization of the Thesis
Chapter 1 is an introduction and overview of the social dynamics of deforestation in Madagascar. The extent of deforestation, their causes and consequences since the early period are described in detail. The initiatives (policy, Legislation) for the environmental conservation taken by the politician leaders that successively govern Madagascar are reported in this chapter. The objectives of the thesis and the methodology for the collection of data and information are also exposed.
Madagascar has diverse climates, soils and geographical factors that provide a variety of ecosystems from deserts to high-mountain rainforest. About 80% of fauna and 90% of the flora are also endemic. However, Madagascar has experienced deforestation from its early history. Almost three-quarters of the primary forest were cleared from 1898 to 1925 during the colonization period . The aerial photographic data and satellite imagery in 1994 show that the forest cover was estimated to 12 million hectares (17% of national territory) while it was estimated to 16 million hectares (28% of national territory) in 1950 (ONE, 1994) . Kremen (1994) estimated that 1 to 2 percent of Malagasy remaining forests were destroyed each year.
Deforestation in pre-colonization period was attributed to shifting agriculture. During the colonization period, deforestation was caused by the migration of peasants to marginal areas because of the expropriation of their land for plantation of white settler. The expansion of cash crop plantations and the exploitation of mines also amplified the rate of deforestation during and after colonization period. Recently, the expansion of shifting cultivation, the decline of exporting commodity prices at international markets, the rapid growth of population, the increase of cattle rustling, the huge amount of external debt, the expansion of shrimp production, forest fires, and natural disasters are among the factors of deforestation in Madagascar.
As consequences of deforestation are (i) soil erosion that causes decrease in soil fertility; (ii) frequent floods that wash out roads and bridges, destroy irrigation infrastructures and silt up rice fields; and (iii) urban migration that causes many social problems.
The policy and legislation for the protection of nature has a long history in Madagascar. Traditional customs and beliefs permitted to protect the forests, and many forested areas are taboo for native people. However, these traditional creeds are now tended to disappear. Since independence, the Malagasy governments have been implemented an ensemble of policies and legislation for the protection of the environment. The forest management policy was oriented toward (i) expansion of reforestation program, (ii) Reinforcement of legislation, and (iii) Expansion of protected areas. The Integrated Conservation and Development Project programs were introduced in 1991 for the management of protected areas. The objective of ICDP is the conservation of biological diversity by reconciling the management of protected areas with the social and economic needs of local people.
Chapter 2 focuses are on local land tenure and agricultural patterns, and their consequences on the depletion of the local natural environment. Broad recommendations for short-term and long-term objectives are suggested for the improvement of land management and the protection of natural resources.
The shifting agriculture practiced by local peasants in public forestlands has been in some cases destroying the natural forests. The clearance of forest for agriculture is not something new in this region because during the colonial period, many thousands hectares of forests had been cleared for of cash crop plantations. The peasants of Andasibe region practice shifting cultivation because of topographic constraint, low labor input, low monetary input, and traditional belief. This traditional system of agriculture is not sustainable in long-term because of its low productivity, unclear land tenure and governmental agriculture policy. The author suggests that (i) the combination of private and common properties constitute viable options for achieving sustainable management of natural resources; (ii) public authority should encourage and facilitate land titling; (iii) agriculture policy and support services should be improved; and (iv) agriculture intensification should be prioritized. Agricultural progress toward intensive farming and improved resource management require improvement in infrastructure, extension services, marketing and research.
In chapter 3, the economic activities implemented with t he ICDP context to alternate the traditional unsustainable forest uses are assessed and analyzed. The results of benefits/cost analysis of the development of ecotourism are also discussed.
The number of tourist visiting Andasibe Mantadia National park continuously increased, and the average increase-rate was 126% per year. The development of ecotourism has ecological and economic impacts. The direct impact of tourism on the natural environment arises from trespassing of tourists in the park and the indirect impact from installation and utilization of tourism infrastructure such as transportation (road and tracks) and accommodation. Environmental degradation of AMNP and its peripheral zone caused by ecotourism are not obvious yet since its development was started in 1992.
Economic impacts of ecotourism in AMNP can be divided into direct and indirect ones. Direct impacts involve entrance fees, cash income earned by hotel restaurants, guides, retailers, and operators of transportation. Hotel and restaurants are a source of employment and provide direct income to peasants through supplying handicraft and furnishing staff to restaurants. Indirect impacts involve income generated from the mini-projects funded by half of the entrance fee (entrance fee sharing policy). However the distribution of such benefits is not unequal. Most of benefits do not return to the local people because hotels that are owned privately or in some case financed with foreign investments capture more than 80% of the total income. Local inhabitants occupy only low-pay, low-skill jobs because of lack of education and trainings. In this context, ecotourism itself does not seem benefit the local people. The benefits gained by local people come from the projects financed with the park entrance fee fund. However, the distribution of the projects is also unequal. Local inhabitants accuse the members of COGES, the local organization charged for the distribution of this fund for corruption and nepotism. Local people must obtain some benefits from park protection in order to gain their cooperation. The author suggests that tourism-generated revenue will contribute to protected area management and local economic development equitably through: equal sharing of ecotourism benefits and costs, fair distribution of DEAP fund, participation of locals in any projects, involvement of the local community in ecotourism, and minimization of economic leakages.
In chapter 4, the local community participation in the activities within ICDP programs: biodiversity conservation and social and economic developments is analyzed. The questions such as " Who are the local participants? What are they participating in? and How do they participated?" will guide the analysis.
The author found the followings as local participants in biodiversity conservation: the agents of nature protection, research and tourist guides, local pupil's association and some village associations. The participants are involved essentially in information gathering, information sharing, consultation, but rarely in decision-making, initiating action or in evaluation. As result, the participation of the locals in local projects is not equal and effective. Gender, profession and wealth, and location are the factors that influence the participation of locals in environmental projects. Local inhabitants are only the beneficiaries of projects that others (park managers, national and international financial and environmental institutions) planned for them. They had played little role to generate benefits. The focuses of participation problems are on the equal participation (equity), real participation (power) and participatory approach (process).
From the investigation of local participation in project of environmental conservation, the most important lessons to be learned are that (i) intended beneficiaries cannot be expected to endorse and sustain projects, which they had little or no involvement in identifying or designing; and (ii) long-term (people self-reliance, empowerment) and short-term benefits (economic development projects) should be balanced as mush as possible. Short-term benefits are requisites to establish credibility of the conservation project and to overcome distrust among the target population.
The chapter 5 is the conclusion of this study. In this chapter is discussed the present park management and solutions are proposed to mitigate the conflicts between the local community activities and natural resource protection. Critics on the ICDP approach and the way to transform its principles are proposed.
Measures of mitigation of conflicts between local inhabitants and park have been implemented along the ICDP concept but our investigation demonstrated that such initiatives are not enough to incite local inhabitants to real cooperation towards the protection of the park. The problems could be summarized in to two parts: (i) there is a lack of trust and communication between park managers and local people in solving the conflicts stemming from the implementation of the park rules; (ii) the legislation that governs AMNP bans any habitation as well as the practice of Tavy inside the park, and limits the use of natural resources. Such restrictions have negative impacts on the lives of local people.
The author suggests the following interventions: (i) building of trust in resolving conflicts (negotiation approach); (ii) improvement of communication between villagers and park managers by investing intensively in projects that secure foods to the locals (in order to show to the locals that park managers really care about their problems), by recruiting the locals as park personnel, and by involving the locals in any steps of project implementation; (iii) restoration and empowerment of local institutions; (iv) leading scientific researches on farming system, market for local products and so on, in order to reduce the sort of risk and uncertainty in the result of the nature conservation projects implemented in Andasibe region; (v) sharing power between all interested groups in order to balance the power of park mangers, scientific and politicians for examples.
Shared power not only promotes trust and multiplies effectiveness, it also broadens perspectives of managers, local officials, and local inhabitants; and (vi) shift from national park ideal to non-restrictive approach because the intransigent of national park ideal was not successful for nature conservation in many countries from industrialized to developing countries.
The number of National Parks in Madagascar increased from 5 (1990) to 16 (2000). The extent of PAs was 1,802,500 hectares or almost 3.05% of national territory in 2000, while 1.95% in 1975 and 2.05 in 1990 (ONE, 2000: Bulletin Statistiques environnement.
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Andry, 1995. Ecotourism d'Andasibe. Memoire de Fin d'Etude. Institut Superieur de la Communication des Affaires et du Management (ISCAM). Madagascar.
Sussman, R.W.; Green, G.M. and Sussman, L.K., 1994. Satellite Imagery, Human Ecology, Anthropology and Deforestation in Madagascar. Human Ecology 22(3): 333-354
FAO, 2001. State of the World's Forests 2001. Online Publication.
Two months of field work in 2000 and other two months in 2001.
Jarosz,L. 1993. Defining and Explaining Tropical Deforestation: Shifting Cultivation and Population Growth in Colonial Madagascar. Economic Geography 64.9, pp 366-380
ONE, 1994. Rapport sur l'Etat de l'Environnement a Madagascar. ONE Publication, 1994. Madagascar.
Kremen, 1994. Ecological Monitoring. A Vital Need for Integrated Conservation and Development, Integrated Programs in the Tropics. Conservation Biology, 8:388-397
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