論文題目：Integrated Water Resources Management in Developing Countries, A Case of Tanzania
著者：エスタ・ウィリアム・ドゥングマロ （DUNGUMARO, Esther William）
Water is a critical ingredient for economic development and is a basic natural resource that sustains life on earth. Hydrological studies show that there is enough water to support the current population. However, water resources are neither evenly distributed spatially nor temporally. Water scarcity has a vast majority of effects to human kind, such as economic, agricultural and health. To realize sustainable economic development, proper water resources management is crucial. Water resources management has been identified as a key issue not only for sustainable development but also for environmental sustainability. Previous attempts of managing water resources had been on an isolated approach and have created their own backlash, for instance, overlapping of responsibilities and neglecting other key players in water resources management. This quite often resulted in insignificant if not failure of the management efforts. To achieve meaningful and sustainable water resources management a shift of paradigm is critical, from its traditional form of a single purpose to an integrated approach. This study explored integrated water resources management especially with respect to socio-economic and cultural factors, and the role of the government, as these apply to Tanzania, an underdeveloped country located in East Africa. Data on water availability, socio-economic factors and cultural practices on water use and water resources management were collected in a survey conducted in Tanzania during October-December 2001. In addition to normative analysis of the information, statistical analysis was employed to establish the relationship between water users and water resources management with respect to socio-economic factors and cultural practices.
The study found that socio-economic factors have effects on water use and water resources management. With regard to cultural practices it has been found that most people do not cling to their traditional beliefs and practices that had some control over water usage and water resources management. The study found that a plausible explanation to this is acute water problems. People face serious water problems that they no longer care about any cultural practice.
The analysis made by this study is that poverty is behind most of the poor practices on water resources management. The government has assumed an overall control of water in Tanzania, but the roles played so far have yet to bring significant improvements in water supply as well as water resources management.
The study argues that attention must be paid to the well-defined roles as well as responsibilities of various stakeholders, poverty alleviation measures, promotion of water pricing and pricing criterion among others.